This study was accepted by and acquired a Finest Paper Award throughout ACM Designing Interactive Systems (DIS) 2023, which is devoted to advancing nan sphere of user-centered strategy design.
Headphones are historically utilized to proviso and grip audio experiences by intends of bodily controls and a assortment of sensors. Nonetheless, these controls and sensors person remained confined to audio participate and output performance, akin to adjusting nan amount aliases muting nan microphone. Think astir if headphones mightiness transcend their position arsenic specified audio units.
As a consequence of headphones rank among nan galore hottest wearables disposable successful nan market, we person now an thrilling replacement to broaden their capabilities by intends of integrating existent sensors pinch supplementary ones to let each kinds of experiences that transcend accepted audio management. In our paper, “Past Audio: In nan guidance of a Design House of Headphones arsenic a Web tract for Interplay and Sensing,” we stock a imaginative and prescient that explores this potential.
Through nan usage of sensors akin to microphones, proximity sensors, activity sensors, inertial measurement models (IMUs), and LiDARs, headphone designers tin observe caller avenues of participate and interplay. The truth that headphones are worn connected an individual’s caput permits for a assortment of purposes, akin to pursuing caput actions, physique postures, and manus gestures. Moreover, arsenic wearable units, headphones person nan imaginable to proviso wearers pinch context-rich info and let other intuitive and immersive interactions pinch their units and ambiance past accepted button-based controls.
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Potential eventualities for sensor-enhanced headphones
To observe this thought additional, we propose augmenting headphones pinch further sensors and participate widgets. These embrace:
- IMUs to consciousness caput orientation
- Swappable units of participate controls
- A variety-sensing LiDAR that permits nan sensing of manus gestures
By incorporating these capabilities, we envision a assortment of purposes nan spot headphone participate acts arsenic a span betwixt nan individual carrying it and their ambiance and let other situation friends and context-aware interactions amongst a number of units and duties. For instance, a headphone mightiness thief folks pinch purposes for illustration video video games aliases assistance grip interruptions passim a video name.
Let’s observe immoderate eventualities for lawsuit nan imaginable of our headphone creation idea. Contemplate an individual engaged successful a video sanction pinch teammates erstwhile they’re abruptly interrupted by a workfellow who approaches successful individual. On this scenario, our headphones tin beryllium outfitted to observe contextual cues, akin to erstwhile nan wearer rotates their caput distant from a video name, signaling a displacement successful consideration. In response, nan headphones mightiness mechanically blur nan video provender and shut up nan microphone to defender nan wearer’s privateness, arsenic proven successful Determine 1. This characteristic mightiness additionally talk to different members that nan wearer is quickly engaged successful 1 different dialog aliases exercise. When nan wearer returns their information to nan decision, nan strategy removes nan blur and reactivates nan microphone.
In 1 different privacy-focused situation, deliberation astir an individual concurrently conversing pinch a number of teammates successful abstracted video sanction channels. Our headphone creation permits nan wearer to modulate to whom their reside is directed by simply their meant viewers, arsenic proven successful Determine 2. This directed reside interplay tin lengthen past video calls and beryllium utilized to different contexts, akin to sending focused sound instructions to teammates successful a multiplayer online game.
In our paper, we additionally grounds really socially recognizable gestures tin present caller types of audio-visual guidance arsenic a substitute of relying solely connected on-screen controls. For instance, wearers mightiness activity together pinch media by intends of gestural actions, akin to cupping their receptor successful nan guidance of nan audio proviso to widen nan amount whereas concurrently lowering ambient noise, arsenic proven successful Determine 3. These gestures, ingrained successful societal and taste contexts, tin usability each guidance mechanisms and nonverbal connection indicators.
Moreover, we will estimate nan wearer’s caput regard by intends of nan usage of an IMU. When mixed pinch nan bodily location of computing units wrong nan wearer’s neighborhood, it opens up prospects for seamless interactions passim a number of units. As an illustration, passim a video name, nan wearer tin stock nan show of nan instrumentality they’re actively specializing in. On this situation, nan wearer shifts their information from an exterior show to a pill machine. Although this pill isn’t instantly related to nan rule laptop computer, our strategy easy transitions nan show sharing for nan wearer’s viewers wrong nan video name, arsenic proven successful Determine 4.
Lastly, successful our insubstantial we additionally coming nan usage of embodied interactions, nan spot nan wearer’s physique actions service to animate a integer illustration of themselves, akin to an avatar successful a video name, arsenic proven successful Determine 5. This characteristic will besides beryllium carried retired arsenic a gameplay mechanism. Take a racing athletics arsenic an example, nan spot nan wearer’s physique actions mightiness guidance nan automobile’s steering, proven connected nan near successful Determine 6. To summation this functionality, these actions mightiness let a wearer to peek information obstacles successful immoderate first-person sport, enhancing nan immersion and gameplay expertise, proven connected nan correct successful Determine 6.
Design area for headphone interactions
We outline a creation area for interactive headphones by intends of an exploration of 2 chopped ideas, which we talk astir successful extent successful our paper.
First, we return a look astatine nan kind of participate gesture for nan interplay, which we further categorize into 3 classes. The gestural participate from nan wearer would perchance autumn underneath a number of of those classes, which we specify successful further constituent nether and exemplify successful Determine 7.
- Contact-based gestures that incorporate tangible inputs connected nan headphones, akin to buttons aliases knobs, requiring bodily interaction by nan wearer
- Mid-air gestures, which nan wearer makes pinch their palms successful unopen proximity to nan headphones, detected by intends of LiDAR expertise
- Head orientation, indicating nan way of nan wearer’s consideration
The 2nd attack that we outline nan creation area is thru nan context wrong which nan wearer executes nan motion. Right here, creation issues for sensor-enhanced headphones transcend personification intentionality and noticed movement. Context-awareness allows these headphones to grasp nan wearer’s actions, nan purposes they’re engaged with, and nan units of their neighborhood, arsenic illustrated successful Determine 8. This knowing allows nan headphones to proviso customized experiences and seamlessly harvester pinch nan wearer’s atmosphere. The 4 classes that outline this context-awareness are comprised of nan next:
- Context-free actions, which nutrient comparable outcomes immoderate nan lively software, nan wearer’s exercise, aliases nan societal aliases bodily atmosphere.
- Context that’s outlined by nan applying pinch which nan wearer is interacting. For instance, are they listening to music, connected a video name, aliases watching a film?
- Context that’s outlined by nan wearer’s physique. For instance, is nan wearer’s motion adjacent a physique half that has an related which means? Eyes would perchance subordinate to visible capabilities, ears to audio enter, and nan rima to audio output.
- Context that’s outlined by nan wearer’s atmosphere. For instance, are location different units aliases folks crossed nan wearer pinch whom they whitethorn wish to activity together?
Wanting forward: Increasing nan probabilities of HCI pinch connected a regular ground wearables
Sensor-enhanced headphones proviso a promising avenue for designers to create immersive and context-aware personification experiences. By incorporating sensors, these headphones tin prehend refined personification behaviors, facilitating seamless interactions and enhancing nan wearer’s wide expertise.
From safeguarding privateness to offering intuitive guidance mechanisms, nan imaginable purposes for sensor-enhanced headphones are immense and thrilling. This exploration pinch headphones scratches nan level of what context-aware wearable expertise tin empower its wearers to attain. Contemplate nan multitude of wearables we usage connected regular ground that would profit from integrating comparable sensing and interplay capabilities into these units. For instance, deliberation astir a watch that whitethorn observe your manus actions and observe gestures. By enabling connection betwixt sensor-enhanced wearables, we will group up a cohesive ecosystem for human-computer interplay that spans passim purposes, units, and societal contexts.